Your first bridge¶
In this example, we’re going to use Rubicon to access the Objective-C Foundation library, and the NSURL class in that library. NSURL is the class used to represent and manipulate URLs.
This tutorial assumes you’ve set up your environment as described in the Getting started guide.
Start Python, and get a reference to an Objective-C class. In this example, we’re going to use the NSURL class, Objective-C’s representation of URLs:
>>> from rubicon.objc import ObjCClass >>> NSURL = ObjCClass("NSURL")
This gives us an NSURL class in Python which is transparently bridged to the NSURL class in the Objective-C runtime. Any method or property described in Apple’s documentation on NSURL can be accessed over this bridge.
Let’s create an instance of an NSURL object. The NSURL documentation describes a static constructor +URLWithString:; we can invoke this constructor as:
>>> base = NSURL.URLWithString("https://beeware.org/")
That is, the name of the method in Python is identical to the method in Objective-C. The first argument is declared as being an NSString *; Rubicon converts the Python str into an NSString instance as part of invoking the method.
NSURL has another static constructor: +URLWithString:relativeToURL:. We can also invoke this constructor:
>>> full = NSURL.URLWithString("contributing/", relativeToURL=base)
The second argument (relativeToURL) is accessed as a keyword argument. This argument is declared as being of type NSURL *; since base is an instance of NSURL, Rubicon can pass through this instance.
Sometimes, an Objective-C method definition will use the same keyword argument name twice. This is legal in Objective-C, but not in Python, as you can’t repeat a keyword argument in a method call. In this case, you can use a “long form” of the method to explicitly invoke a descriptor by replacing colons with underscores:
>>> base = NSURL.URLWithString_("https://beeware.org/") >>> full = NSURL.URLWithString_relativeToURL_("contributing", base)
So far, we’ve been using the +URLWithString: static constructor. However, NSURL also provides an initializer method -initWithString:. To use this method, you first have to instruct the Objective-C runtime to allocate memory for the instance, then invoke the initializer:
>>> base = NSURL.alloc().initWithString("https://beeware.org/")
Now that you have an instance of NSURL, you’ll want to manipulate it. NSURL describes an absoluteURL property; this property can be accessed as a Python attribute:
>>> absolute = full.absoluteURL
You can also invoke methods on the instance:
>>> longer = absolute.URLByAppendingPathComponent('how/first-time/')
If you want to output an object at the console, you can use the Objective-C property description, or for debugging output, debugDescription:
>>> longer.description 'https://beeware.org/contributing/how/first-time/' >>> longer.debugDescription 'https://beeware.org/contributing/how/first-time/>'
Internally, description and debugDescription are hooked up to their Python equivalents, __str__() and __repr__(), respectively:
>>> str(absolute) 'https://beeware.org/contributing/how/first-time/' >>> repr(absolute) '<rubicon.objc.api.ObjCInstance 0x1114a3cf8: NSURL at 0x7fb2abdd0b20: https://beeware.org/contributing/>' >>> print(absolute) <rubicon.objc.api.ObjCInstance 0x1114a3cf8: NSURL at 0x7fb2abdd0b20: https://beeware.org/contributing/>
Time to take over the world!¶
You now have access to any method, on any class, in any library, in the entire macOS or iOS ecosystem! If you can invoke something in Objective-C, you can invoke it in Python - all you need to do is:
- load the library with ctypes;
- register the classes you want to use; and
- Use those classes as if they were written in Python.